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Discrimination and Disparities
More product info From Thomas Sowell


Rating:
210 Reviews
42% of potentially unnatural reviews removed (Why?)
Adjusted:
View/Edit Adjustment
Jump to Report Card

Report Card

Warn Overall Grade
FAIL Suspicious Reviewers
FAIL Reviewer Ease
WARN Deleted Reviews
WARN Rating Trend
WARN Word Count Comparison
WARN Phrase Repetition
WARN Reviewer Participation
PASS Unverified Purchases
PASS Overlapping Review History
PASS Brand Repeats
PASS Incentivized Reviews

Most Trusted Reviews

This book is “Wealth, Poverty, and Politics” on a diet ... [Go to full review]
May 30, 2019      
100% TRUST
  • Verified Purchaser
  • Brand Repeater (2 of 20 reviews for this brand; avg rating: 5.0)
  • Overlapping Review History: reviewed 3 of 9 top products
  • Critical Reviewer (avg. rating: 4.0)


Least Trusted Reviews

Great insight into a controversial issue. [Go to full review]
Aug 30, 2018      
10% TRUST
  • Verified Purchaser
  • Overrepresented word count (8 words)
  • Take-Back Reviewer (1 deleted review; avg. rating: 4.0)
  • Overrepresented Participation (posted 3 reviews)
  • Easy Grader (avg. rating: 5.0)


Analysis Details

Fail Suspicious Reviewers

Take-Back Reviewers


45 of the 210 reviewers have had at least one of their past reviews for another product deleted. This is an excessively large percentage of Take-Back Reviewers which may indicate unnatural reviews.

from take-back reviewers

from reviewers without previously deleted reviews


4.9
5.0


Read more about our Suspicious Reviewers test.

Fail Reviewer Ease
The ease score is the average rating for all reviews that a given reviewer submits. The average ease score for reviewers of this product is 4.4, while the average ease score for reviewers in this category is 4.3. Based on our statistical modeling, the discrepancy in average rating between these two groups is significant enough to believe that the difference is not due to random chance, and may indicate that there are unnatural reviews.

4.4 Product's Average Ease Score

4.3 Category's Average Ease Score


4.4
4.3


Read more about our Reviewer Ease test.


Warn Deleted Reviews

We discovered a total of 9 deleted reviews for this product, with an average rating of 4.4. Even though deleted reviews don't affect the average rating, the fact that action was taken to delete reviews raises some red flags about the integrity of the reviews for the product as whole.

There are a few limitations to keep in mind regarding the Deleted Reviews test:
  1. We don't have a magic ability to collect every single deleted review; we can only identify reviews as deleted if we collect them on one date and then notice they are no longer visible on a subsequent date.
  2. We have no information on reviews that were never published in the first place.
  3. We also don't know why these reviews were removed. It could be action from the platform, personal decision by the review author, part of an entire account closure, even some data error on our part, etc.
Read more about the Deleted Reviews test here.

4.4 average rating of deleted reviews

4.4


Show distribution of deleted reviews

Warn Rating Trend

  • 6%
  • Created over 2 days

We counted 210 reviews for this product over the span of 471 days, an average of 0.4 reviews per day. If these reviews were created randomly, there would be a 99.9% chance that we would see 4 or fewer reviews on any given day.

However, we see the following 2 days exceeding this threshold:In total, we found that 12 reviews were created on just 2 days. Although any days with a larger number of reviews than expected is suspicious, these reviews do not appear to have a significant impact on the overall rating.

from reviews created on high volume days

from reviews created on normal volume days


5.0
5.0


Read more about our Rating Trend test.

Warn Word Count Comparison

  • 39%
  • Have an overrepresented word count

In the graph above, we can see the distribution of review word counts for this product and the expected distribution for this category. We see the following 2 groups with a statistically significant greater concentration than what we'd expect to see:In total, we found that 82 reviews (or 39%) are within an overrepresented word count group. While this is more reviews from overrepresented word count groups than we'd expect to see, these reviews do not appear to have a significant impact on the overall rating.

from reviews with an overrepresented word count

from reviews with a properly represented word count


5.0
5.0


Read more about our Word Count Comparison test.

Warn Phrase Repetition
Reviews that contain one of these phrases are NOT necessarily devalued; read more about how this test works here.

Common Phrases in Reviews:
10 reviews
(4.9/5)
4 reviews
(5.0/5)
4 reviews
(5.0/5)
2 reviews
(5.0/5)
7 reviews
(5.0/5)
3 reviews
(5.0/5)
Show MoreShow Less
Common Phrases in Titles:
6 reviews
(5.0/5)
2 reviews
(5.0/5)
2 reviews
(5.0/5)
5 reviews
(5.0/5)
8 reviews
(5.0/5)
7 reviews
(5.0/5)
3 reviews
(4.7/5)
4 reviews
(5.0/5)
8 reviews
(5.0/5)
7 reviews
(5.0/5)
Show MoreShow Less


36 of the 210 total reviews for this product use substantial repetitive phrases between them. While this is more than we'd expect to see, it does not appear to have a significant impact on the overall rating.

from reviews with substantial repetitive phrases

from reviews without substantial repetitive phrases


5.0
5.0


Read more about our Phrase Repetition test.

Warn Reviewer Participation

  • 39%
  • From reviewers with an overrepresented participation

We see the following 1 participation group with a statistically significant greater concentration than what we'd expect to see:In total, we found that 81 reviewers (or 39%) are within an overrepresented participation group. While this is more reviews from overrepresented participation groups than we'd expect to see, the discrepancy in ratings between reviewers in an overrepresented participation groups and all other reviewers isn’t significant enough to rule out the possibility of it being due to random chance.

From reviewers with an overrepresented participation

From reviewers with a properly represented participation


5.0
4.9


Read more about our Reviewer Participation test.

Pass Unverified Purchases

37 of the 210 total reviews for this product are unverified purchases. This is within an acceptable range and it does not appear to be significantly affecting the overall rating for this product.

from unverified purchasers

from verified purchases


5.0
5.0


Unverified purchases may be the result of Kindle Unlimited readers, buyers who didn't pay full price, or reviewers who did not purchase the product at Amazon. Read more about our Unverified Purchases test.

Pass Overlapping Review History
Reviewers of this product have ALSO reviewed the following products:

Does not include products
from the same brand


43 of the 210 reviewers have substantial overlapping product review history. This is within an acceptable range and it does not appear to be significantly affecting the overall rating for this product.

from reviewers with substantial overlapping history

from reviewers without a substantial overlapping history


4.9
5.0


Read more about our Overlapping Review History test.

Pass Brand Repeats

Brand Repeaters


29 of the 210 reviewers have reviewed other products for this brand. This is within an acceptable range and it does not appear to be significantly affecting the overall rating for this product.

from Brand Repeaters

from Non-Repeaters


4.9
5.0


Read more about our Brand Repeats test.

Pass Incentivized Reviews
On Oct 3, 2016, Amazon prohibited incentivized reviews, however we still test for them since there are still millions in our dataset.

  • 0%
  • Admitted to receiving an incentive
We didn't detect any reviews that used language indicating they were incentivized.
Read more about our Incentivized Reviews test, or check out our study showing that Incentivized Reviewers are much more likely to leave a positive review.


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