High Crimes and Misdemeanors: The Case Against Bill Clinton
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From Ann Coulter
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Top products in United States with authentic reviews:
Most Trusted Reviews
- Verified Purchaser
- Easy Grader (avg. rating: 4.8)
Least Trusted Reviews
- Unverified Purchaser
- Overrepresented word count (178 words)
- Contains repetitive phrases (show)
- One-Hit Wonder
- Never-Verified Reviewer
- Overrepresented Participation (posted 1 review)
- Easy Grader (avg. rating: 5.0)
We discovered a total of 56 deleted reviews for this product, with an average rating of 3.5. Even though deleted reviews don't affect the average rating, the fact that action was taken to delete reviews raises some red flags about the integrity of the reviews for the product as whole.
There are a few limitations to keep in mind regarding the Deleted Reviews test:
- We don't have a magic ability to collect every single deleted review; we can only identify reviews as deleted if we collect them on one date and then notice they are no longer visible on a subsequent date.
- We have no information on reviews that were never published in the first place.
- We also don't know why these reviews were removed. It could be action from the platform, personal decision by the review author, part of an entire account closure, even some data error on our part, etc.
3.5 average rating of deleted reviews
Show distribution of deleted reviews
88 of the 125 total reviews for this product are unverified purchases. The unverified purchasers have rated this product an average of 3.8 while the verified purchasers have rated this product an average of 4.7. Based on our statistical modeling, the discrepancy in average rating between these two groups is significant enough to believe that the difference is not due to random chance, and may indicate that there are unnatural reviews.
Unverified purchases may be the result of Kindle Unlimited readers, buyers who didn't pay full price, or reviewers who did not purchase the product at Amazon. Read more about our Unverified Purchases test.
18 of the 125 reviewers have only reviewed this product. While this is more One-Hit Wonders than we'd expect to see, it does not appear to have a significant impact on the overall rating.
40 of the 125 reviewers have never written a verified purchase review. The Never-Verified Reviewers have rated this product an average of 3.4 while the reviewers who have written at least one verified purchase review rated this product an average of 4.4. Based on our statistical modeling, the discrepancy in average rating between these two groups is significant enough to believe that the difference is not due to random chance, and may indicate that there are unnatural reviews.
11 of the 125 reviewers have had at least one of their past reviews for another product deleted. This is an excessively large percentage of Take-Back Reviewers which may indicate unnatural reviews.
- From reviewers with an overrepresented participation
We see the following 2 participation groups with a statistically significant greater concentration than what we'd expect to see:
36 of the 125 reviewers have reviewed other products for this brand. While this is more Brand Repeaters than we'd expect to see, the discrepancy in ratings between the Brand Repeaters and non-repeaters isn't significant enough to rule out the possibility of it being due to random chance.
- Have an overrepresented word count
In the graph above, we can see the distribution of review word counts for this product and the expected distribution for this category. We see the following 2 groups with a statistically significant greater concentration than what we'd expect to see:
42 of the 125 total reviews for this product use substantial repetitive phrases between them. This is an excessively large percentage which may indicate unnatural reviews.
- Created over 3 days
We counted 125 reviews for this product over the span of 7,166 days, an average of 0.0 reviews per day. If these reviews were created randomly, there would be a 99.9% chance that we would see 1 or fewer reviews on any given day.
However, we see the following 3 days exceeding this threshold:
5% also reviewed:
The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956: An Experiment... by Aleksandr Isaevich Solzhenitsyn
from the same brand
26 of the 125 reviewers have substantial overlapping product review history. This is within an acceptable range and it does not appear to be significantly affecting the overall rating for this product.
4.1 Product's Average Ease Score
4.3 Category's Average Ease Score
Read more about our Reviewer Ease test.
- Admitted to receiving an incentive
Read more about our Incentivized Reviews test, or check out our study showing that Incentivized Reviewers are much more likely to leave a positive review.